HFS+ and it’s predecessor HFS are more than 30 years old. These file systems were developed in an era of floppy disks and spinning hard drives, where file sizes were calculated in kilobytes or megabytes. Today, solid-state drives store millions of files, accounting for gigabytes or terabytes of data. There is now also a greater importance placed on keeping sensitive information secure and safe from prying eyes.
A new file system is needed to meet the current needs of Apple products, and support new technologies for decades to come.
64-bit inode numbers, nanosecond timestamp granularity, extensible block allocator, support for sparse files, crash protection, and extended file attributes — if that’s something you’re interested in.